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2Natural Farming Research and Development Center, Maejo University, Chiang Mai, Thailand
3Soil Science Program, Faculty of Agricultural Production, Maejo University, Thailand
Background: This study is the first research report on Thai cannabis which is named "Isara01". This plant was also known as KanCha-Isara01 strain. After pushing for cannabis research under the control of the Thai government, our research organization (the Natural Farming Research and Development Center, MaeJo University, Thailand) was therefore instructed to arrange a sample group and study the genetic diversity of 16,000 Isara01 specimens to be promoted and used in medicine. In this study, RAPD techniques were used to categorize all cannabis for a fundamental data to further work in the future, especially new strain development. Method: We developed the RAPD genetic marker technique for categorization the 133 Thai cannabis strains (Isara 01) which are supported by Thai government using five RAPD primers creating fingerprinting and analyzed the genetic relationship by comparison with the amount of phytochemicals such as cannabinoids. Results: 133 Thai cannabis "Isara01" were categorized into 4 large groups and 9 sub-groups. The RAPD fingerprinting showed a total banding of fingerprint in 35 bands and its devision into 19 polymorphic bands (54.29%). The average of banding was calculated in 7 bands per primer. The UPGMA yielded the similarity index as 0.9553-0.9923. The comparison ratio between THC/CBD suggested that the highest THC content in cannabis inflorescence in Group D is (37:1).Conclusions: We are completely categorized the Thai cannabis “Isara01” and it showed intra-genetic diversity and high THC especially group D. Hence, it is suitable for study as a primary model for the development of a new species in Thailand.