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The genus Garcinia has many varieties of fruit trees, which are found in rural and urban backyards, tropical forests and domestic orchards of several tropical countries. Fruits have a great diversity of metabolites, among which phenolic compounds stand out for their potential antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and other effects, and which have a preventive action on diseases of modernity. This review aimed to associate studies on the metabolic activities of Garcinia fruits and their numerous effects on health risk factors, such as obesity, hyperglycemia, inflammatory processes and dyslipidemias. Scientific articles published in English, Portuguese and Spanish were selected, which carried out studies involving the administration of Garcinia fruits in vitro and in vivo, mainly in the last five years. Sixty relevant articles were included in the study. Studies have shown that the Garcinia fruit species can be used in body weight control and prevention of cardiovascular disorders, cancer and diabetes mellitus, among other diseases associated with oxidative stress.