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2Assistant Professor (Agricultural Statistics), College of Agriculture, Chiplima (OUAT), Odisha, India
Agriculture is the backbone of the economy of Odisha. Food grain production in the state is mainly confined in the coastal areas which include Puri, Khordha, Ganjam, Kendrapada, Jagatsinghpur, Cuttack, Bhadrak and Balasore districts. Climatic and soil conditions of these areas are very much suitable for cultivation of different kharif food grain crops. Food grains include both cereals and pulses. Major cereals grown in these areas are rice, ragi, maize, wheat and bajra and major pulses grown in these areas are green gram, black gram, kulthi and arhar. To study the variation in yield of major kharif food grains, a study is made about the area and production of kharif food grains in these coastal districts from the year 1993-94 to 2014-15. This study includes test of significance of change in mean and variance of area, yield and production of kharif food grains from Period-I (1993-94 to 2002-03) to Period-II (2003-04 to 2014-15). To test the significance of change in mean and variance of area, yield and production of kharif food grains, we have to calculate the mean and variance of area, yield and production of kharif food grains from Period-I to Period-II by using Fisher′s t-test and Snedecor’s F-test respectively. Increase in the production of kharif food grains of Odisha after the year 2003-04 is due to adoption of new and improved technologies. High variation in mean yield and mean production of kharif food grains is marked which may be due to uneven spread of technologies. In Balasore, Bhadrak, Ganjam and Kendrapada districts change in yield variance contributes more towards change in variance of production. More variation in yield in the above districts is due to scattered land holdings by farmers.