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With a potted field experiment, this paper studied the effects of potassium fertilizer on the growth and physiological of Phoebe bournei seedlings, which in order to provide basis for the cultivation and application of Phoebe bournei seedlings. With the increase of potassium, the results showed that base diameter, leaf length, leaf width, root fresh weight and root dry weight increased first and decreased afterwards and seedling height increased; the net photosynthetic rate (Pn), stomatal conductance (Gs), intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci) and transpiration rate (Tr) increased first and decreased afterwards and reached the highest level under A4, content of MDA decreased first and then increased and reached the lowest level under A4, and the soluble sugar content increased. As a result, the optimal potassium can promote photosynthesis and morphological growth of Phoebe bournei seedlings, and enhanced stress protection under stress, the optimum fertilizer ratio was N+P+K=150mg + 22.5mg+450mg (A4) in the seedling growth of Phoebe bournei.