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2Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Kaduna State, Nigeria
The study investigated the hypoglycaemic effect of methanol extract of Solanum anomalum fruit. Extraction of the powdered fruit was done with 90% methanol. Rats were divided into five groups of five rats per group. Hyperglycaemia was induced using alloxan at a dose of 150 mg/kg in groups two to five. Groups one to five received distilled water 2 ml/kg (normal control), distilled water 2 ml/kg (diabetic control), S. anomalum extract 500 mg/kg, S. anomalum extract 1,000 mg/kg and glibenclamide 10 mg/kg respectively. The treatment was continued for 14 days during which blood glucose levels were monitored. Phytochemical screening revealed the presence carbohydrate, cardiac glycosides, saponins, tannins, flavonoids and alkaloids. The oral LD50 was found to be above 5,000 mg/kg. The methanol extract of S. anomalum fruit at 1,000 mg/kg showed a statistically significant blood glucose lowering effect (p<0.05) between the blood glucose level at zero hour (337.8 ± 29.4 mg/dL) and blood glucose level after 24 h (317.4 ± 21.5 mg/dL) for the groups being administered with the extract. The groups receiving 500 mg/kg and 1,000 mg/kg of the extract showed a statistical significant blood glucose lowering (p<0.05) between the blood glucose level at day zero (329 ± 34 and 337 ± 29 mg/dL) was compared to the blood glucose at day 15 (237 ± 32 and 143 ± 15 mg/dL). In conclusion, methanol extract of S. anomalum fruit contains one or more active agents that has anti-hyperglycaemic and hypoglcaemic activity in alloxan induced hyperglcaemic and normoglycaemic rats.